in some languages, the form of a noun or pronoun that shows that it is the direct object of a verb
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in some languages, the form of a noun or pronoun that shows that it is the direct object of a verb
linguistics the part of a clause that shows when, where, how, or in what circumstances something happens. An adjunct usually consists of an adverb or adverb group, or a prepositional phrase, for example 'moreover', 'quite happily', and 'in the near future'.
one of the forms that a morpheme can have. For example, the plural ending ‘-s’ has three allomorphs: /s/, /z/, and /iz/, as in the words ‘trucks’, ‘cars’, and ‘buses’.
linguistics one of the slightly different ways that a phoneme can be pronounced. For example, the /p/ in the word ‘pill’ is slightly different from the /p/ in the word ‘spill’.
linguistics the antecedent of a word is the noun or phrase nearer the beginning of the sentence that it refers to. In the sentence ‘I threw the keys to him and he caught them’, ‘keys’ is the antecedent of ‘them’.
linguistics a type of determiner (=word used before a noun) that shows whether you are referring to a particular thing or to a general example of something. The indefinite article is ‘a’ or ‘an’ and the definite article is ‘the’.
linguistics a group of words that contains a verb and often a subject, object, complement and adjunct. A sentence consists of one or more clauses. For example the sentence ‘If you can help, please get in touch’ has two clauses.
a way of emphasizing a word or words by re-ordering the information in a sentence. A cleft sentence consists of impersonal ‘it’, the verb ‘be’, the important word or words, and a clause. For example the sentences ‘It is the answers that matter’ and ‘It was the money he wanted’ are cleft sentences. The non-emphatic alternatives would be ‘The answers matter’ and ‘He wanted the money’.
a form of a word that has its own meaning but is used only in combination with other words to make new words, for example -footed in ‘a four-footed animal’
linguistics in active clauses, the part of a clause that comes after a linking verb such as ‘be’, ‘seem’, or ‘appear’ and identifies or describes the subject. A complement is usually a noun or adjective. For example in the sentences ‘Parking is always a problem in city-centres’ and ‘Sometimes the future seems very uncertain’, the complements are ‘a problem’ and ‘very uncertain’.
a subordinate clause that begins with a conjunction such as ‘although’, 'while', or ‘whereas’, and makes a statement that is unexpected in some way, or contrasts with information in another clause. For example in the sentence ‘I’ve never met my neighbours, although I’ve lived here for five years’, the information after ‘although’ seems unexpected. In the sentence ‘Men have to wear business suits to the office, whereas women can wear what they like’ there is a contrast between the two clauses.
linguistics a subordinate clause that usually begins with a conjunction such as ‘if’ or ‘unless’, and states possible situations and events, while the independent clause states their results, for example in the sentences 'All these courses are free if you are a student or unemployed’ and ‘Unless immediate action is taken, more lives will be lost’
an independent clause that is connected to another one of equal importance, often with a conjunction such as ‘and’, ‘but’, or ‘or’. For example in the sentence ‘He died and she married again’ there are two coordinate clauses.
the form of a noun, pronoun, or adjective that you use in some languages when it is the indirect object of a verb
British the exact words that someone has said. In writing, they are shown inside quotation marks.
linguistics the gender of a word is whether it is masculine, feminine, or neuter. In English, only pronouns like ‘he’ and ‘she’ and possessive determiners like ‘his’ and ‘her’ have gender, but in other languages such as French all nouns, pronouns etc have gender.
a clause that contains a verb which shows time or tense, and usually a subject. An independent clause can be a sentence on its own, for example ‘Halley’s comet is named after the English astronomer’ is an independent clause.
a pair of words that are different from each other in one sound only, for example pan and can
the part of a noun group, adjective group, or verb group that comes before the most important word (the head), and adds information about it. For example in the noun groups ‘dangerous games’, and ‘my maths teacher’, ‘dangerous’, ‘my’ and ‘maths’ are all modifiers. In some grammars, ‘modifier’ refers to words that come both before and after the head.
a relative clause that gives extra information about a person, thing, or situation in the previous clause. There is usually a comma before the relative pronoun, indicating that the information in the relative clause is not essential. For example, in the sentence ‘None of the documents had a date, which was very confusing’, ‘which was very confusing’ is a non-restrictive relative clause.
linguistics in active clauses, the part of a clause referring to the person or thing that is affected by the action of a verb. In English, the object is usually a noun group or pronoun, and comes after the verb. For example the sentence ‘I’ve promised the children new bicycles’ has two objects: ‘new bicycles’ is the direct object, and ‘the children’ is the indirect object.
linguistics the complete set of the different forms of a word, for example student, student’s, students, and students’
linguistics a word or words that act as a unit in a clause, such as a noun phrase, a verb phrase, or an adjective phrase. For example in the sentence ‘This road can get very busy ’, ‘this road’ is a noun phrase, ‘can get’ is a verb phrase, and ‘very busy’ is an adjective phrase.
a word that comes before a determiner (a word such as ‘a’, ‘the’, ‘his’, and ‘this’) and gives more information about a noun. For example in the noun groups ‘all my fingers’ and ‘half a loaf’, ‘all’ and ‘half’ are predeterminers.
the part of the sentence that contains the verb and its object or complements and gives more information about the subject, for example ‘was combing her hair’ in the sentence ‘Francesca was combing her hair’.
a prepositional phrase consists of a preposition followed by a noun group, pronoun, or ‘-ing’ form. A prepositional phrase is often an adjunct in a clause, for example in the sentences ‘I called about your advert’, and ‘I learned a lot from reading crime fiction', ‘about your advert’ and ‘from reading crime fiction’ are prepositional phrases.
a way of emphasizing part of a sentence by using a ‘what’ clause as its subject or complement, with a form of ‘be’ as the main verb. The sentences ‘What we should do is tell the truth’, and ‘A holiday in the mountains is what I really need’ are pseudo-cleft sentences. The non-emphatic alternatives would be ‘We should tell the truth’ and ‘I really need a holiday in the mountains’.
linguistics the part of a noun group, adjective group, or verb group that comes after the most important word (the head), and adds information about it. For example in the noun group ‘the rules of the game’, the prepositional phrase ‘of the game’ is a qualifier.
a short clause that you add to a statement to make it a question or to request agreement, for example ‘You called the builder didn’t you?', 'He’s a fantastic player, isn’t he?’ and ‘You can’t work it out, can you?’ When the first clause is affirmative, the tag is usually negative, and when the first clause is negative, the tag is usually affirmative.
a subordinate clause that follows another clause and usually begins with words such as ‘who’, ‘which’, or ‘that’. Relative clauses give extra information about a person, thing, or situation in the preceding clause. For example in the sentence ‘From there you can see the whole city, which is beautiful at sunset’, ‘which is beautiful at sunset’ is a relative clause.
a relative clause that makes clear which particular person or thing you are referring to. For example, in the sentence ‘We need to maximize the amount of waste that is recycled’, ‘that is recycled’ is a restrictive relative clause. When the relative pronoun would be the object or complement of the relative clause, it is often omitted, for example in the sentence ‘His first movie contains some of the best acting I’ve ever seen’.
a group of words, usually including a subject and a verb, that express a statement, question, or instruction. A written sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark.
an action that people perform when they communicate with others. When for example someone claims, suggests, promises, requests, or refuses something, they are obeying certain rules of communication in order to make their intentions understood.
linguistics in active clauses, the part of a clause referring to the person or thing that does or causes the action of a verb. In English, the subject is usually a noun group or pronoun, and comes before the verb. For example in the sentence ‘Some children enjoy writing stories’, the subject is ‘some children’.
a clause that adds information about an independent clause, but is not considered to be a well-formed sentence on its own. For example in the sentence ‘When you hear the alarm, get out of bed immediately’, ‘when you hear the alarm’ is a subordinate clause.
linguistics all the phrases and clauses that typically follow a verb. For example, the valency of a linking verb like ‘be’ typically involves a noun group, an adjective group, or a prepositional phrases such as ‘in a muddle’ in the sentence ‘Oh dear, you are in a muddle, aren’t you?’
giving birth to a baby in the presence of a large number of close relatives and/or friendsBuzzWord Article
a condition when a person cannot see clearly objects that are close; long sightednessadd a word