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any noun that is not the name of a specific person or thing. For example ‘woman’, ‘dog’, ‘mountain’, and ‘idea’ are common nouns, while ‘Sarah’, ‘Rover’, and ‘Mount Everest’ are proper nouns. The two types of common noun are concrete noun and abstract noun.
in active clauses, a type of grammatical object that refers to the person or thing that is directly involved in or affected by the action of the verb, but does not perform the action. In English, the direct object is usually a noun or pronoun, for example in the sentences ‘Drink up your milk’, and ‘I loved her’, the direct objects are ‘your milk' and ‘her’.
a form of the noun or pronoun in the grammar of some languages, used to show possession. In English, this is shown by adding ‘’s’ at the end of the word, for example ‘Sarah’s birthday’.
a type of grammatical object that refers to the person who receives something from or benefits from an action. An indirect object is usually a noun or pronoun. For example in the sentences ‘She taught me a lot about music’ and ‘We were given free tickets to the concert’, the indirect objects are ‘me’ and ‘we’.
a noun such as ‘soap’ that is usually uncountable but is also used with ‘a’ or ‘an’, or in the plural, to talk about different types of something. For example the noun ‘soap’ in ‘Wash your hands with soap and water’ is uncountable, while in ‘You should choose a mild soap’ and ‘Some soaps are very strongly perfumed’, ‘soap’ is countable. A mass noun is used in both these ways.
in some languages, the form of a noun or pronoun when it is the subject of a verb
a noun that names a particular person, place, or thing and begins with a capital letter. ‘Jane’, ‘Africa’, and ‘New Year’ are proper nouns.