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The cold war and wars in history

Allied

adjective

belonging to or connected with the countries that united to fight against Germany in the First and Second World Wars, or against Iraq in the Gulf War

the Allies

noun

the countries that united to fight against Germany in the First and Second World Wars, or against Iraq in the Gulf War

antebellum

adjective

happening or existing in the US in the period before the start of the Civil War in 1861

Armistice Day

noun

11 November, the anniversary of the date in 1918 on which the First World War ended

Auschwitz

the largest Nazi concentration camp (=a type of prison) where more than 1.5 million people were killed during the Second World War

the Axis

the group of countries including Germany, Italy, and Japan that fought against Britain, France, the United States, and other countries in the Second World War. The group is also known as the Axis powers or the Axis countries.

the Battle of Britain

an important Second World War air battle in 1940 in which the British air force finally defeated the German air force, making it less likely that the UK would be invaded

the Bay of Pigs

an event in 1961 in which a small group of Cubans supported by the US tried to defeat the government of Fidel Castro. The attack failed and made the relationship between the US and Cuba much worse.

the Berlin Wall

the wall that divided the German city of Berlin from 1961 until 1989. It was built to prevent the citizens of East Berlin from travelling to the West and it became a symbol of the cold war. It is often simply called the Wall.

Blackshirt

noun

someone who belonged to a fascist organization whose members wore black shirts, especially in Italy and the UK before the Second World War

the Blitz

the period during the Second World War when the Germans dropped bombs on London and other British cities. British people remember this period as a time when everyone joined together to help each other.

the Boer War

a war fought in South Africa at the beginning of the 20th century in which the British defeated the Boers

the British Empire

the areas of the world ruled by Britain between the 17th century and the middle of the 20th century. After the Second World War, most of the colonies of the British Empire became independent states and members of the commonwealth.

carpetbagger

noun

someone from the North of the US who went to the South to get political or financial advantages after the Civil War

Cavalier

noun

a supporter of the king in the English Civil War of the 17th century

cold war

noun

unfriendly relations between countries who are not at war with each other

the Cold War

noun

the unfriendly relations that existed between the Soviet Union and the West from the end of the Second World War to the 1980s

the Confederacy

in the American Civil War, the group of southern states that fought the northern states. The northern states were called the Union.

confederate

adjective

connected with the Confederacy during the American Civil War

the Confederate States

the confederacy

D-Day

6th June, 1944, the day on which the British, US, and other armies arrived on the beaches of northern France in the Second World War

the Declaration of Independence

the official document written at the beginning of the American War of Independence in which people in North America stated that they did not want to be ruled by Britain

demilitarized zone

noun

an area where no soldiers or fighting between armies is allowed, usually as the result of an official decision to end a war

Dixie

noun

the southern states of the US, that fought against the northern states during the American Civil War

doodlebug

noun

a flying bomb used by the Germans for attacking Britain in the Second World War

the Final Solution

noun

a plan made by the Nazis during the Second World War to kill all the Jews in Europe

the First World War

noun

a war fought mainly in Europe between 1914 and 1918

Gallipoli

an area of northern Turkey where thousands of Australian and New Zealand soldiers were killed fighting against Turkish soldiers in the First World War

the Gettysburg Address

an important speech that was given by the US President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, during the Civil War in 1863. It includes the famous expression ‘government of the people, by the people, for the people’.

the Gulf War

the war that took place in 2003 in Iraq in which the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia fought against Iraq

the Gulf War

the war that took place in 1991 in Kuwait in which the United States, the United Kingdom, and several other countries fought against Iraq

Gulf War Syndrome

noun

a disease suffered by soldiers who fought in the 1991 war in the Persian Gulf. The cause of the disease is not exactly known.

the Holocaust

noun

the organized killing of millions of Jews and other people by the German Nazi government during the Second World War

the Iron Curtain

noun

the border between Communist Eastern Europe and the rest of Europe during the cold war

land girl

noun

a young woman who worked on a farm during the Second World War

Mata Hari

a very attractive woman who worked as a spy for the German government during the First World War

minuteman

noun

one of a group of men in the US during the American War of Independence who promised to be ready to fight as soon as they were needed

Nazi

noun

someone who belonged to the Nazi Party, which was established and led by Adolf Hitler between 1933 and 1945. The Nazi Party governed Germany before and during the Second World War.

Nissen hut

noun

a small building made of steel, originally used as a shelter during the First World War

Normandy Landings

the time during the Second World War when soldiers from Britain, America, and other Allied countries arrived in Normandy in northern France to try to make the German army leave France. The day on which they arrived, June 6th 1944, is called D-Day.

Pearl Harbor

a US Navy base in Hawaii that was attacked on 7 December, 1941, by Japanese aircraft. Because of the attack, the US announced that it would fight in the Second World War.

post-war

adjective

happening or existing in the period of time immediately after a war, especially the Second World War

pre-war

adjective

from a time before a particular war, especially the First World War or the Second World War

Roundhead

noun

a supporter of Parliament in the English Civil War of the 17th century

the Second World War

the war that was fought in Europe, Africa, and Asia between 1939 and 1945

the SS

the military police of the German Nazi Party in the Second World War

the Third Reich

noun

the nazi government of German leader Adolf Hitler

the Union

noun

the Northern States of the US during the American Civil War

V-E Day

Victory in Europe Day: 8 May, 1945, when the fighting of the Second World War officially ended in Europe

the Vietnam War

a war between North and South Vietnam that became important internationally in the 1960s when the US began to support South Vietnam by sending military forces there. North Vietnam won the war in 1975.

V-J Day

Victory over Japan Day: 15 August, 1945, the day on which Japan stopped fighting in the Second World War

the war

noun

the second world war

War of the Roses

a war fought in the 15th century between two royal families in England to decide which one would rule. The House of York used a white rose as their symbol and the House of Lancaster used a red rose.

the Western Front

the area in France and Belgium where many of the most important battles of the First World War were fought between 1914 and 1918

World War I

the first world war

World War II

the second world war

World War III

a war involving the most powerful countries in the world that some people believe will happen in the future

World War III

a situation in which there is a lot of trouble, mess, and noise

between the wars

during the period of time between the First World War and the Second World War

the Fatherland

Germany during the Second World War

Word of the Day

astronomer

someone who studies the stars and planets using scientific equipment including telescopes

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