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Substances in or from plants

agar

noun

a substance that is obtained from seaweed, used for making liquids thicker or for making them solid. It is a type of carbohydrate.

alkaloid

noun

a substance found in plants that is used in drugs and poisons. Morphine, nicotine, and strychnine are all alkaloids.

balsam

noun

a substance like oil that comes from plants. It has a strong smell and is used in medicines and perfumes.

belladonna

noun

a substance produced by this plant that is used as a drug

cellulose

noun

a substance that forms the outer layer of plant cells and plant fibres

chlorophyll

noun

the green substance in plant cells that uses the energy from the sun to make food through the process of photosynthesis

curare

noun

a poisonous substance made from a South American plant

essence

noun

a liquid that contains the strong taste or smell of the plant that it is taken from

essential oil

noun

an oil that contains the qualities of the plant that it is taken from, used for making perfume and in aromatherapy

extract

noun

a substance that has been taken from a plant or from another substance

flax

noun

the fibres from the stem of a flax plant, used for making linen (=a strong cloth)

ginseng

noun

the root of a wild plant that many people believe gives them strength and energy

hemlock

noun

a poison made from the hemlock plant

jute

noun

a substance from plants that is used for making cloth or rope

lavender

noun

oil from a lavender plant, used in perfumes and aromatherapy

linseed

noun

the seed from a flax plant

linseed oil

noun

an oil from linseed used in making such things as paint and ink

milk

noun

a white liquid that some plants such as the coconut produce

nectar

noun

a sweet liquid that some flowers make and that insects and birds drink

oil

noun

an essential oil

patchouli

noun

an oil obtained from a plant, used for making perfume and in aromatherapy

pith

noun

the white substance inside the stems of some plants

pollen

noun

a powder produced by flowers. It is carried by the wind or insects to other flowers so that they can produce new seeds.

pulp

noun

wood or plant fibre that is crushed for making paper

resin

noun

a transparent sticky substance produced by some plants and trees, often used for making paints, glue, and plastic

sap

noun

a sticky substance found in plants and trees

secretion

noun

a liquid that is produced by a living thing, or the process of producing this liquid

sucrose

noun

a common type of sugar that comes from plants such as sugar cane

sugar

noun

one of a group of sweet substances contained in plants, for example fructose or glucose

tannin

noun

a yellow-brown substance from trees and plants used in making leather

thistledown

noun

the light soft white substance on thistle seeds

hostile architecture

the design of buildings or public spaces in a way which discourages people from touching, climbing or sitting on them …

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boots on the ground

a situation in which a country's armed forces are physically present in an area of conflict …

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