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Types and forms of word, clause or sentence - synonyms or related words

accusative

noun

the form of a noun or pronoun that shows that it is the direct object of a verb

adjunct

noun

linguistics

the part of a clause that shows when, where, how, or in what circumstances something happens. An adjunct usually consists of an adverb or adverb group, or a prepositional phrase, for example moreover, quite happily, and in the near future.

allomorph

noun

one of the forms that a morpheme can have. For example, the plural ending “-s” has three allomorphs: /s/, /z/, and /iz/, as in the words “trucks,” “cars,” and “buses.”

allophone

noun

linguistics

one of the slightly different ways that a phoneme can be pronounced. For example, the /p/ in the word “pill” is slightly different from the /p/ in the word “spill.”

antecedent

noun

linguistics

the antecedent of a word is the noun or phrase nearer the beginning of the sentence that it refers to. In the sentence “I threw the keys to him and he caught them,” “keys” is the antecedent of “them.”

article

noun

linguistics

a type of determiner (=word used before a noun) that shows whether you are referring to a particular thing or to a general example of something. The indefinite article is “a” or “an” and the definite article is “the.”

case

noun

linguistics

a form of a noun, adjective, or pronoun in some languages that shows its relationship in grammar to other words in a sentence

clause

noun

linguistics

a group of words that contains a verb and often a subject, object, complement and adjunct. A sentence consists of one or more clauses. For example the sentence ‘If you can help, please get in touch’ has two clauses.

cleft sentence

noun

a way of emphasizing a word or words by re-ordering the information in a sentence. A cleft sentence consists of impersonal ‘it’, the verb ‘be’, the important word or words, and a clause. For example the sentences ‘It is the answers that matter’ and ‘It was the money he wanted’ are cleft sentences. The non-emphatic alternatives would be ‘The answers matter’ and ‘He wanted the money’.

collocate

noun

a word that is often used with another word

collocation

noun

a collocate2

combining form

noun

a form of a word that has its own meaning but is used only in combination with other words to make new words, for example -footed in “a four-footed animal”

complement

noun

linguistics

in active clauses, the part of a clause that comes after a linking verb such as ‘be’, ‘seem’, or ‘appear’ and identifies or describes the subject. A complement is usually a noun or adjective. For example in the sentencesParking is always a problem in city-centres’ and ‘Sometimes the future seems very uncertain’, the complements are ‘a problem’ and ‘very uncertain’.

concessive clause

noun

a subordinate clause that begins with a conjunction such as ‘although’, 'while', or ‘whereas’, and makes a statement that is unexpected in some way, or contrasts with information in another clause. For example in the sentence ‘I’ve never met my neighbors, although I’ve lived here for five years’, the information after ‘although’ seems unexpected. In the sentenceMen have to wear business suits to the office, whereas women can wear what they like’ there is a contrast between the two clauses.

coordinate clause

noun

an independent clause that is connected to another one of equal importance, often with a conjunction such as ‘and’, ‘but’, or ‘or’. For example in the sentence ‘He died and she married again’ there are two coordinate clauses.

dative

noun

the form of a noun, pronoun, or adjective that you use in some languages when it is the indirect object of a verb

declension

noun

a group of nouns, adjectives, or pronouns in some languages that all change their form in the same way depending on their relationship to other words in a sentence

definite article

noun

the word “the” in English, or a similar type of word in another language

deixis

noun

the use of words or phrases such as “you,” “there,” or “last month” whose meaning depends on the situation in which they are used

dependent clause

noun

direct discourse

noun

American

the exact words that someone has said. In writing, they are shown inside quotation marks.

direct speech

noun

British

direct discourse

discourse marker

noun

words such as “however” or “furthermore” that provide a connection between ideas in written language

gender

noun

linguistics

the gender of a word is whether it is masculine, feminine, or neuter. In English, only pronouns like “he” and “she” and possessive determiners like “his” and “her” have gender, but in other languages such as French all nouns, pronouns, etc. have gender.

indefinite article

noun

the word “a” or “an” in the English language, or a word in another language that is used in a similar way

independent clause

noun

a clause that contains a verb that shows time or tense, and usually a subject. An independent clause can be a sentence on its own, for example ‘Halley’s comet is named after the English astronomer’ is a sentence.

indirect discourse

noun

the words you use to report what someone else has said, for example “She said that we must leave.”

indirect question

noun

the words that you use to report a question that someone else has asked, for example “She asked me where I was going.”

indirect speech

noun

indirect discourse

inflection

noun

the form of a word that is not the basic form

interjection

noun

linguistics

a word or phrase used for expressing a strong emotion such as surprise or anger. “Oh” and “ouch” are interjections.

interrogative

noun

a word or phrase that you use for asking a question, for example “what?” or “how?”

lexeme

noun

a word or group of words that has a meaning that cannot be understood from the meaning of the parts of which it consists

loan translation

noun

a word or expression used in a language that has been translated from another language

locative

noun

the form of a noun, pronoun, or adjective that you use in some languages when you are talking about where someone or something is

locution

noun

a word or phrase, especially one used by people in a particular area or from a particular group

main clause

noun

masculine

noun

a word or form of a word that belongs to the masculine group of nouns, pronouns, or adjectives

minimal pair

noun

a pair of words that are different from each other in one sound only, for example pan and can

modifier

noun

the part of a noun group, adjective group, or verb group that comes before the most important word (the head), and adds information about it. For example in the noun groupsdangerous games’, and ‘my maths teacher’, ‘dangerous’, ‘my’ and ‘maths’ are all modifiers.

morpheme

noun

the smallest unit of meaning in a language. A morpheme can be a whole word, for example “the,” or part of a word, for example “un” in “unable.”

mot juste

noun

exactly the right word or phrase

negative

noun

linguistics

a word or phrase that means ‘no’ or ‘not’. Verb groups with ‘no’ or ‘n’t’ are negatives, for example ‘I don’t understand’, and ‘I won’t comment’.

number

noun

linguistics

the form of a word that shows whether you are referring to one thing or more than one thing

object

noun

linguistics

in active clauses, the part of a clause referring to the person or thing that is affected by the action of a verb. In English, the object is usually a noun group or pronoun, and comes after the verb. For example the sentence ‘I’ve promised the children new bicycles’ has two objects: ‘new bicycles’ is the direct object, and ‘the children’ is the indirect object.

paradigm

noun

linguistics

the complete set of the different forms of a word, for example student, student’s, students, and students’

partitive

noun

a word or expression used for showing that only part of something is being referred to, instead of all of it. In the sentence “Have a piece of cake,” “a piece of” is a partitive.

phrase

noun

linguistics

a word or words that act as a unit in a clause, such as a noun phrase, a verb phrase, or an adjective phrase. For example in the sentence ‘This road can get very busy ’, ‘this road’ is a noun phrase, ‘can get’ is a verb phrase, and ‘very busy’ is an adjective phrase.

pl.

abbreviation

plural

the plural

noun

a word or form used for referring to more than one person or thing. For examplestudents” is the plural of “student,” and “mice” is the plural of “mouse.”

plurality

noun

linguistics

the state of being plural

poss.

abbreviation

possessive

possessive

noun

a possessive word or form of a word

predeterminer

noun

a word that comes before a determiner (a word such as ‘a’, ‘the’, ‘his’, and ‘this’) and gives more information about a noun. For example in the noun groups ‘all my fingers’ and ‘half a loaf’, ‘all’ and ‘half’ are predeterminers.

predicate

noun

the part of the sentence that contains the verb and its object or complements and gives more information about the subject, for example “was combing her hair” in the sentence “Francesca was combing her hair.”

prepositional phrase

noun

a prepositional phrase consists of a preposition followed by a noun group, pronoun, or ‘-ing’ form. A prepositional phrase is often an adjunct in a clause, for example in the sentences ‘I called about your advert’, and ‘I learned a lot from reading crime fiction', ‘about your advert’ and ‘from reading crime fiction’ are prepositional phrases.

pseudo-cleft sentence

noun

a way of emphasizing part of a sentence by using a ‘what’ clause as its subject or complement, with a form of ‘be’ as the main verb. The sentences ‘What we should do is tell the truth’, and ‘A holiday in the mountains is what I really need’ are pseudo-cleft sentences. The non-emphatic alternatives would be ‘We should tell the truth’ and ‘I really need a holiday in the mountains’.

qualifier

noun

linguistics

the part of a noun group, adjective group, or verb group that comes after the most important word (the head), and adds information about it. For example in the noun group ‘the rules of the game’, the prepositional phrase ‘of the game’ is a qualifier.

quantifier

noun

a word or phrase such as “much” or “a few” that is used with another word to show quantity

question tag

noun

a short clause that you add to a statement to make it a question or to request agreement, for example ‘You called the builder didn’t you?', 'He’s a fantastic player, isn’t he?’ and ‘You can’t work it out, can you?’ When the first clause is affirmative, the tag is usually negative, and when the first clause is negative, the tag is usually affirmative.

relative clause

noun

a subordinate clause that follows another clause and usually begins with words such as ‘who’, ‘which’, or ‘that’. Relative clauses give extra information about a person, thing, or situation in the preceding clause.

reported speech

noun

the words that you use to report what someone else has said, for example “He said we shouldn’t leave town

restrictive relative clause

noun

a relative clause that makes clear which particular person or thing you are referring to. For example, in the sentence "We need to maximize the amount of waste that is recycled", "that is recycled" is a restrictive relative clause. When the relative pronoun "that" would be the object or complement of the relative clause, it is often omitted, for example in the sentence "His first movie contains some of the best acting I’ve ever seen".

run-on sentence

noun

a sentence in which two main clauses are connected without any conjunctions, or without the correct punctuation

sentence

noun

a group of words, usually including a subject and a verb, that express a statement, question, or instruction. A written sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point.

the singular

noun

the form of a word that is used for referring to one person or thing

speech act

noun

an action that people perform when they communicate with others. When for example someone claims, suggests, promises, requests, or refuses something, they are obeying certain rules of communication in order to make their intentions understood.

subject

noun

linguistics

in active clauses, the part of a clause referring to the person or thing that does or causes the action of a verb. In English, the subject is usually a noun group or pronoun, and comes before the verb. For example in the sentence ‘Some children enjoy writing stories’, the subject is ‘some children’.

subordinate clause

noun

a clause that adds information about an independent clause, but is not considered to be a well-formed sentence on its own. For example in the sentence ‘When you hear the alarm, get out of bed immediately’, ‘when you hear the alarm’ is a subordinate clause.

tag

noun

linguistics

a tag question

tag question

noun

a word or phrase such as “isn’t it?” or “haven’t you?” that you can add to a sentence to make a question

valence

noun

linguistics

the valence of a verb refers to all the phrases and clauses that typically follow it. For example, the valence of a linking verb like ‘be’ typically involves a noun group, an adjective group, or a prepositional phrase such as ‘in a muddle’ in the sentenceOh dear, you are in a muddle, aren’t you?’

polysemy

noun

conlang

… a language for human communication which has been invented and has not developed naturally

BuzzWord Article

Open Dictionary

spogs

spectacles; boiled sweets, candy; soft aniseed-flavoured jelly sweets coated with blue and pink sugar sprinkles

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