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Environmental issues

biodegradable

adjective

biodegradable substances can be separated into very small parts by bacteria so that they are not harmful to the environment

biohazard

noun

something that may cause harm to people or to the environment, especially a poisonous chemical or an infectious disease

biological control

noun

a method of reducing the number of harmful insects by using other insects or small animals that feed on them

carbon capture and storage

noun

the process of collecting carbon dioxide that is produced by burning coal or oil and storing it to stop it getting into the atmosphere

the carbon cycle

noun

the movement of carbon between living things and their environment. carbon dioxide is taken from the atmosphere and used by plants. It then moves from plants eaten as food to animals, and is returned to the atmosphere by the respiration of plants and animals and by the burning of plant material.

carbon footprint

noun

the amount of carbon dioxide a person, organization, building, etc produces, used as a measure of their effect on the environment

carbon-neutral

adjective

a carbon-neutral activity, company, etc. balances the amount of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide it produces with actions that are designed to protect the environment, for example planting trees or using less electricity

carbon sink

noun

an ocean, forest, or other area of vegetation (=plants and trees) that helps to protect the environment by taking in large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

carbon trading

noun

a system that allows a company or country that reduces the amount of carbon dioxide it produces to below a particular level to sell the extra reduction as a credit to a company or country that has not reduced the amount it produces enough

catalytic converter

noun

a piece of equipment attached to a car in order to reduce the amount of poisonous gases that it sends into the air

clean

adjective

clean machines and processes do not create much pollution

clean up

to remove pollution from a place or an industrial process

cleanly

adverb

without creating a lot of mess or pollution

cleantech

noun

technology which provides benefits such as clean energy, and environmentally sustainable products and services

cleantech

noun

using or based on cleantech

cleanup

noun

the process of cleaning a place thoroughly, especially by removing pollution or waste

climate change

noun

the changes that are thought to be affecting the world’s weather so that it is becoming warmer

conservation

noun

the management of land and water in ways that prevent it from being damaged or destroyed

conservation

noun

the careful use of energy, water, and other resources, so that they are not wasted or lost

conservation area

noun

an area of land that is protected from being damaged

conserve

verb

to prevent land, water, or other natural resources from being damaged or destroyed

conserve

verb

to use very little of something such as electricity or water so that it is not wasted

contaminate

verb

to make something dirty, polluted, or poisonous by adding a chemical, waste, or infection

contaminated

adjective

made dirty, polluted, or poisonous by the addition of a chemical, waste, or infection

contamination

noun

the process of making something dirty, polluted, or poisonous by adding a chemical, waste, or infection

decarbonize

verb

to reduce the amount of gaseous carbon compounds released into the atmosphere as a result of human activity

deforestation

noun

the process of removing the trees from an area of land

dispersant

noun

a chemical substance used to break up a liquid, especially oil floating on the sea, into tiny pieces so that it spreads over a wide area and causes less harm

eco-

prefix

relating to the environment: used with some nouns and adjectives

ecocide

noun

damage to or destruction of the natural environment, especially as caused by human activity such as pollution or war, or an example of this

eco-friendly

adjective

designed to cause as little harm as possible to the environment

ecological

adjective

working to protect the environment

ecoterrorism

noun

deliberate destruction of the environment

ecoterrorist

noun

someone who tries to stop or damage organizations that cause harm to the environment

ecotourism

noun

the business of creating and selling vacations that give people the chance to learn about a natural environment, and cause as little damage to the environment as possible

emissions trading

noun

the practice of buying and selling the right to produce chemicals and other substances that have a harmful effect on the environment

endangered species

noun

a type of animal or plant that may soon become extinct (=disappear from the world)

environmental

adjective

relating to the natural world and the effect that human activity has on it

environmental

adjective

intended to help or protect the environment

environmental accounting

noun

a way of calculating the cost of a business decision that includes all its good and bad effects on, for example, the environment and people’s health, as well as the direct costs

environmentally

adverb

in a way that affects the environment or is related to it

environmentally friendly

adjective

designed not to harm the natural environment

environmentally sensitive area

noun

an area where the natural environment can easily be harmed

feed-in tariff

noun

a payment made by the government to someone who produces energy that is renewable (= that can be replaced and is never completely used up)

global warming

noun

the slow increase in the temperature of the Earth caused partly by the greenhouse effect increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

green

adjective

designed to protect the environment or to limit damage to the environment

green

adjective

green issues are issues that affect the environment

green

adjective

used about places in which the environment is protected

green

verb

to change a place or activity in a way that protects the enviroment or limits damage to the enviroment

green audit

noun

an examination of what a company is doing to prevent its business activities from harming the environment

green belt

noun

an area of land around large cities where no buildings are allowed in order to protect the countryside

the greenhouse effect

noun

the process in which heat is unable to escape from the atmosphere and causes the temperature of the Earth to rise. The rise in temperature is called global warming.

greening

noun

the process of taking a greater interest in environmental issues and acting to protect the environment

greenly

adverb

in a way that does not harm the environment

greentailing

noun

the business of selling products that are not harmful to the environment

greentailing

noun

the use of products that are not harmful to the enviroment in business

greenwash

noun

activities by a business or other organization that are intended to show that the organization is concerned about the environment

naturalize

verb

to encourage plants to grow or animals to live in an area where they are not usually found

nature reserve

noun

an area of land that is protected so that people cannot harm the animals and plants that live there

the nitrogen cycle

noun

the series of processes by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is changed into nitrogen compounds in soil from and taken in by plants. These compounds spread into the atmosphere when the plants decay or are eaten by animals and are passed from their bodies as waste. They are then changed back into nitrogen in the atmosphere.

nonrenewable

adjective

nonrenewable types of energy exist in limited amounts, and when these are used, there will be none left

ozone-friendly

adjective

chemicals that are ozone-friendly do not cause pollution that damages the ozone layer

poison

verb

to create pollution that damages part of the environment

pollute

verb

to make air, water, or land too dirty and dangerous for people to use in a safe way

polluter

noun

a person or company responsible for causing pollution

pollution

noun

the process of damaging the air, water, or land with chemicals or other substances

preservation

noun

the process of working to protect something valuable so that it is not damaged or destroyed

preservation

noun

involved in preservation

preserve

verb

to take care of a place or building in order to prevent it from being harmed or destroyed

protected

adjective

used about animals, plants, and other things that the law prevents people from harming

rain forest

noun

a forest in a tropical region of the world where it rains a lot. Rain forests are considered to be important environmental areas and many people want them to be protected by law

reclaim

verb

to improve an area of land so that it can be used

recyclable

adjective

able to be recycled

recycle

verb

to change waste materials such as newspapers and bottles so that they can be used again

recycling

noun

the process of changing waste materials such as newspapers and bottles so that they can be used again

reforestation

noun

the act of putting new trees into a place where the original trees have been cut down

reintroduce

verb

to return a type of animal or plant to an area where it lived in the past so that it can continue to develop there

release

verb

to let a substance or energy spread into the area or atmosphere around it, especially as part of a chemical reaction

release

noun

a situation in which something such as a chemical is spread into the area or atmosphere around it

renewable

adjective

renewable energy and natural materials replace themselves by natural processes, so that they are never completely used up

reprocess

verb

to process a waste substance so that it can be used again

reserve

noun

an area of land where wild animals or plants are officially protected. The American word is reservation.

rewilding

noun

a form of conservation which aims to return areas of land to their natural wild state, especially by bringing back animal species that used to live there

sanctuary

noun

a special area where animals live in a natural environment protected from people

U-value

noun

a measure of how well a part of a building, for example a window or a roof, prevents heat from escaping

sustainable

adjective

using methods that do not harm the environment

sustainable development

noun

the development of a country or region that does not use more natural resources than can be replaced and so does not harm the environment

toxic

adjective

poisonous and harmful to people, animals, or the environment

unleaded

adjective

unleaded gas does not contain lead and is therefore less harmful to people and to the environment

unsustainable

adjective

unsustainable farming methods, industries, etc. damage the environment because they use up more energy, wood, coal, etc. than can be replaced naturally

the water cycle

noun

the continuous process by which water in seas, rivers, soil, living things, etc. evaporates into the atmosphere, where it forms clouds that produce rain or snow so that it goes back into the seas, rivers, soil, etc. again

zero carbon

adjective

not causing carbon emissions (=carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the atmophere)

decarbonization

noun

ecotourist

noun

environmentalism

noun

naturalization

noun

reclamation

noun

sustainability

noun

toxicity

noun

emoji

a small digital image … which is used in electronic communication to express emotion or other simple concepts

BuzzWord Article

Open Dictionary

major on (doing) sth

to have or do a lot of something; to focus on a particular thing

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