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Court cases and legal processes

action

noun

the process of bringing a case to a court of law. This kind of action is also called legal action

appeal

noun

a formal request for a court of law or similar authority to change its decision

case

noun

a legal matter that will be decided in a court

cause

noun

a case in a law court

cause célèbre

noun

a legal case or political issue that a lot of people become interested in and argue about

class action

noun

a legal case organized by a group of people who all have the same problem

committal

noun

the process by which a court officially sends someone to prison or for a trial in a higher court

committal

noun

the process by which a court officially sends someone who is mentally ill to a hospital

court

noun

done by a court or relating to a court

court

noun

used for referring to the process of taking a legal action against someone

court-martial

noun

a trial in a military court

dissent

noun

an official statement in which a judge states that they disagree with the other judges in a legal case

docket

noun

a list of cases that are waiting to be considered in a court of law

due process

noun

the correct way of dealing with a legal trial or other legal matters, that makes sure that people’s rights are protected

hearing

noun

a meeting of a court of law or official organization to find out the facts about something

incriminate

verb

to show or make you think that someone is guilty of a crime

initiate

verb

to start a legal case or process

inquest

noun

an official attempt by a court to find the cause of someone’s death

interfere with

to persuade a witness to give false information in a court of law

lawsuit

noun

a case that a court of law is asked to decide involving a disagreement between two people or organizations

legal action

noun

the process of going to court to have something decided officially by law

legal aid

noun

a system in which the government pays for people to get advice about the law or to be represented in court when they do not have enough money for this

litigation

noun

use of the legal system to settle a disagreement

mistrial

noun

a trial that was not done correctly and has to be started again

open-and-shut case

noun

a court case that is simple and likely to be decided quickly

paternity suit

noun

a legal case brought by a woman against a man in order to establish that he is the father of her child and therefore responsible for providing financial support

plea bargaining

noun

a process by which someone may be allowed to avoid punishment for a serious crime if they admit they have committed a less serious crime

practice

noun

the established methods for dealing with cases in court

precedent

noun

the practice of basing legal decisions on decisions in previous cases

proceedings

noun

the actions taken, usually in court, to settle a legal matter

prosecution

noun

the process or act of accusing someone of a crime and asking a court of law to judge them

remand

noun

the period of time that someone accused of a crime waits for their trial

remand

noun

relating to someone who is on remand, or to the process of being on remand

retrial

noun

a second trial in a court of law that takes place because the first trial was considered not to be fair or ended without a verdict

right of appeal

noun

the right to ask a court or other official body to consider changing a decision that you disagree with

show trial

noun

a trial that a government arranges for political reasons and decides the result of before the trial begins

submission

noun

a statement that you make to a judge or to someone else who is considering your case

suit

noun

a claim or complaint that someone makes in a court of law

sum up

if a judge sums up a case, they give a summary of all the evidence that has been given

test case

noun

a legal case whose result will be used as a model for similar cases in the future

trial

noun

the process of examining a case in a court of law and deciding whether someone is guilty or innocent. When a case comes to trial, it is brought to a court and the person who has been accused of a crime stands trial (=appears in court)

annulment

noun

incrimination

noun

plea bargain

noun

bring someone to justice

to make someone have a trial in order to find out whether they are guilty of a crime

stay of execution/deportation etc.

an order given by a judge to stop or delay something

trial by jury

a legal trial in which someone is judged by a jury (=a group of ordinary people chosen for the purpose)

creep

used with other nouns to describe the unexpected and often unwanted effects of a particular situation or trend

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