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sum - definition and synonyms


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verb sum pronunciation in American English /sʌm/
Word Forms
present tense
present participlesumming
past tensesummed
past participlesummed
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phrasal verb

sum up

Word Forms
present tense
I/you/we/theysum up
he/she/itsums up
present participlesumming up
past tensesummed up
past participlesummed up
  1. 1
    [intransitive/transitive] to give a summary of something
    I’ll sum up briefly and then we’ll take questions.
    Summing up the discussion, he said that all parties would consider how best to resolve the problem.
    1. a.
      legal if a judge sums up a case, they give a summary of all the evidence that has been given
      The judge will sum up the evidence tomorrow.
  2. 2
    [transitive] to make a statement that shows what something or someone is like
    Her reply seemed to sum up the attitude of all the refugees.
  3. 3
    [transitive] to make a judgment about what someone or something is like
    I’d already summed him up, and I knew he’d be difficult to work with.


a course of study which is much shorter than a university course and focuses on the skills you need for a job, especially computer-related skills

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an ancient Roman system of underfloor heating, used to heat houses with hot air; from the Latin 'hypocaustum'

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