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besides - definition and synonyms

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adverb, preposition     besides pronunciation in American English
Besides can be used in the following ways:
as a preposition (followed by a noun): Did you talk to anyone else besides Joan?
as an adverb (without a following noun): I’ve read all the books on the list and a few others besides.
as a way of starting a new statement and connecting it to the previous statement: I don’t want to go shopping. Besides, I haven’t got any money.
  1. 1
    in addition to someone or something else that is being mentioned

    A lot of them are studying other things besides Italian.

    There are cakes and sandwiches, and lots more besides.

    besides being/doing something:

    Besides being a teammate, he’s my friend.

  2. 2
    used when you are adding another stronger reason to support what you are saying

    It’s too late to invite any more people. Besides, you know how Tim hates parties.



to manipulate someone psychologically so that they begin to question their own perceptions and memories

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Dunning-Kruger effect

the phenomenon by which an incompetent person is too incompetent to understand his own incompetence

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